Beekeeping

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  • Beekeeping in India

    History / Origin

    India is the home of Beekeeping: The following hymn in Ayurveda gives the status of honey and honeybees in ancient India

    Means: Honey flows in India.

    In India, history of beekeeping can be traced back to mesolithic period where traditional form of beekeeping i.e. “honey hunting?was practiced, as depicted in the rock paintings in Central India dating back to at least 11,000 to 15,000 years B.C. Western scientist however, rate the rock paintings found in eastern Spain as the most ancient which actually dates to 7000 B.C. only.

    Rigveda ?Of its more than 1000 hymns, 56 are dedicated to Ashvin (the God of Honey bees) and two species of Indian honey bees. Chapters 61-64 of the Ramayana, contains 135 hymns gratifying the value and greatness of honey and honeybees. During those times, forests were protected for honey and such forests were called Madhuvan or “honey forests?and their protectors were called madhupaal or “honey forest pals?

    India is the birth place of 3 out of 4 species of honey bees found in the world as these are not found in other countries. The oldest honeybee species ?Mellipona- with 42 races in Asia is not found in Europe. Dwarf honey bee (Apis florea) evolved first followed by rock/giant honeybee (A. dorsata) while A. cerana and A. mellifera evolved still later and India is the home to first three honey bee species.

    These historical and strong scientific facts are enough to prove India as the origin of honeybees and proponent of beekeeping.

    Early Indians not only knew the social life and life history of bees, but also practiced a fairly developed form of bee culture. Honey was widely used as the only sweetening agent in foods and medicine in ancient India besides, its use in spiritual and religious ceremonies.

    The Aryan settlements along the Sindhu river used both glazed and unglaed pottery probably used these pots as bee hives while the bee species nesting in cracks/crevices or hollows of the trees made first hive in the form of log hives. Such ancient structures are still used in India.

    There are several references on honey and its medicinal properties in Vedas and other ancient Indian literature. Famous surgeon Sushruth and medical practitioner Charak recorded properties and medicinal uses of honey in their Samhitas Ayurveda.

    What are BEES?

    Bees belong to the order Hymenoptera which is characterized by two pairs of membranous wings, and chewing and lapping type of mouth parts. The life cycle shows four stages, viz., egg, larva, pupa and adult. They are either solitary or social. The solitary bees include the carpenter bee, alkali bee and the leafcutter bee. The female bee after laying egs and provisioning them with adequate food, does not take any further part in their growth. The social bees, on the other hand, live in families, where the parent society of different individuals, which cannot function successfully, in isolation. Honey bees are social and colonial insects found all over the world. There are thousands of individuals, exhibiting a remarkable polymorphism and division of labour. The forage on pollen and nectar of flowers and manufacture honey and beeswax. The colonies of honey bees are perennial.


    DIFFERENT SPECIES OF HONEY BEES

    India is home to the largest diversity of honey bees. Three of the four known species of honey bees originated in India besides thousands of species of wild, solitary and eusocial bees ?diversity richness no other country of the world can match. These are:


    Apis cerana, the Oriental Honey Bee
    Occurs in South East Asia, Adopted to tropical as well as temperate climates. This species has several sub-species. The Indian bee belongs to A. cerana indica. In India there are the plains typeand the hill type of A. cerana indica. Both the types are reared in hives. This hive bee constructs its combs in dark enclosures. It builds several (generally six to seven) combs, parallel to the nest entrance. The upper one third portion of the comb is used for honey storage while the lower two thirds are used for brood rearing.
    Apis dorsata, the Giant Bee or Rockbee
    This is found in South East Asian countries in tropical and sub-tropical zones. With its large conspicuous nests, this bee naturally attracts bee hunters, who get as much as 50 kg of honey from a single colony. This is the largest honey bee in India and migrates from place to place in search of food. A. dorsata builds a single large comb in the open. It requires open, airy space and light. The functional parts of the combs are similar to other Apis species. Rock/giant bee is the dweller of forests and builds its nests gregariously (from 1 to 100 or more/tree) and horizontally on strong branches of tall and well spread trees or on rock cliffs or othr high structures. According to Mahindre (1987) the huge comb can be upto 2 m in length (side to side) and 1.2 m in breadth (top to bottom). The brood rearing portion (lower part of the comb) is about 4 cm thick and with cells 2 cm deep, where as the honey chamber (upper part) may be upto to 46 cm thick with cells upto 23 cm deep. A medium colony have about 30,000 to 50,000 or more bees which have a flight range of upto 3 km (radius) to gather food from surrounding vegetation in the form of pollen and nectar. Thus, rockbees explore vegetation in about 28 sq. km area around their nest.
    Apis florea, the Little Bee
    This is found in the tropical and sub-tropical regions in South East Asia. It builds single combs like the rockbee, but ofa comparatively very small size, and produces small quantities of honey. This is also migratory in habit. A. florea also constructs a single comb in the open, but the comb is much smaller than that of A. dorsata. The nests are built generally in shrubs and bushes. The comb has an upper broad portion often encircling the support which is used for storage of honey. The brood is reared in the lower two-thirds of the comb.
    Apis mellifera, the European Honey Bee
    This is also a hive bee like A. cerana, and is now kept in almost all parts of the world. It is larger in size than A. cerana, but is similar to it in several other characteristics. This species is commercially kept in India, since 1970s in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana. Like A. cerana, A. mellifera, the European hive bee also constructs its combs in dark and parallel to each other.
    Stingless bees
    In addition to the Apis, India has another genus Trigona, the Dammar Bee, which is a stingless bee. The bees build their nest in the form of a cluster of small pots of wax and propolis. Honey is produced in very small quantities.
    CLASSIFICATION OF HONEY BEE
    Kingdom Animalia
    Group Invertebrata
    Phylum Arthropoda
    Sub-phylum Mandibulata
    Class Insecta
    Sub-class Pterygota
    Division Endopterygota
    Order Hymenoptera
    Family Apidae
    Sub-family Apinae
    Genus Apis
    Species florea, dorsata, cerana and mellifera
    Devlopment

    Growth of beekeeping industry in India

    Disease and pest status

    Honey bees in India were presumed to be free of major diseases till recently but are now afflicted with almost all diseases of the world. We are still lucky that CCD (Colony Collapse Disorder) and AFB (American Foul Brood) has not reached India.

    Adult Diseases

    Acarine Disease: Caused by an endo-parasitic mite called Acarapis woodi which live and feed inside breathing tubes of adult worker and queen bee. Larvae and adults of the mite feed on tracheal fluid of the bees and progressively block the breathing tubes. It results in large number of crawling bees in front of the hive with “K?winged condition. There may also be yellow droppings due to dysentery.

    Nosema: Caused by a protozoan, Nosema apis that enters the food canal of the adult bees in the form of spores where it grow and absorb food. Droppings of loose excreta are found on the comb and hive, especially outside brood chamber. Bees are unable to fly and dead or dying bees can be seen in front of hive. Infected queen stops egg-laying and colony productivity is drastically reduced.

    Brood Diseases

    European Foul Brood (EFB): Caused by bateria Melissococcus pluton and spread through house cleaning and nursing bees within the colony and through drifting, robbing, uniting, and feeding infected honey. Patchy brood appears in comb and there is no sealed brood. Larvae become transparent, curved, turn pale die and decay die before pupation. Dead larvae turn sticky and dry up as scales emitting offensive smell.

    Varroa destructor: Since 2004, this ecto-parasitic mite has has played havoc with Indian beekeeping. Varroa mite feeds on haemolymph of worker and drone brood (larvae and pupae) in the cells. Infested cells are not sealed and “naked pupae?are seen on a comb in patches. Such pupae die, are seen scattered on bottom board and removed by house cleaning bees. Some infested cells are capped by worker bees and they have sunken cappings with hole in the centre. The adults emerging from them are lazy, weak, with deformed wings and abdomen. Drones are more severally attacked than workers. Such workers are unable to perform their normal duties and die.

    Tropilaelaps clareae: This ecto-parasitic mite feed on the brood and adults of honey bees. Workers become week, shiver outside the hives and eventually die in large numbers.

    Common Pests

    Wax Moth: Greater and smaller waxmoth incidence is more severe during monsoon especially on weak colonies. Larvae of moth feed on on pollen, honey and brood casts in brood combs. They make irregular galleries or webs in the combs and destroy them completely. If not properly stored, all the combs may be destroyed.

    Wasps: Red wasp, Vespa orientalis is major enemy during rainy season and attack adult bees near hive entrance resulting in weak colonies. Such colonies die.

    Production

    Export of Indian honey

    India is a relatively new entrant to world export market marking its presence in 1997. India is the 8th largest exporter of honey to more than 47 countries of the world. (APEDA, 2010). Majority of Indian honey (upto 9000 MT) is exported to USA; about 5000 MT honey is exported to European Union, mostly as ORGANIC HONEY that fetches more than 30% premium and rest goes to middle-East and other destinations.

    Publications


    Books of Beekeeping
    Sr. No. Title Author
    1 The world of bees Gilbert Nixon
    2 The hive and the honey bee Dadant & Sons
    3 Honeybees and their management in India Mishra, R.C.
    4 Diagnosis of honey bee diseases UCDA
    5 Maunpalan ki prashanotri Rawat, B.S.
    6 Safal maun palan Rawat, B.S.
    7 Honey bee pests, predators and diseases Morse RA & Nowogrodzki R
    8 The fascinating world of bees Rodionov VV& Shabarshov IA
    Other Books
    9. Crane, E. and Walker, P. 1983.Impact of pest management on bees and pollination. London.
    10. Crane, E. and Walker, P. 1984. Pollination directory for world crops. IBRA. London.
    11. Crane, Eva. 1975. Honey : Comprehensive Survey. Heinemann, London.
    12. Crane. E. 1990. Bees and Beekeeping- science, practice and world resources. Heinemann Newnes. UK.
    13. Dadant, C.C. 1975. The hive and the honey bee. Dadant & Sons Inc., Hamilton. Illinois, USA.
    14. Dafni, A. 1992. Pollination Ecology. Oxford University Press, New York. 250 pp.
    15. Free, J. B. 1993. Insect pollination of crops. Academic press, London. 684 pp.
    16. Jean-Prost, P. 1994. Apiculture. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. 366-367.
    17. McGregor, S.E. 1976. Insect pollination of cultivated crop plants. Agriculture Handbook, United States Department of Agriculture, No. 496.
    18. Shimanuki, H.; Knox, D.A. (2000). Diagnosis of honey bee diseases. Agricultural Handbook No. AH-690: US Department of Agriculture: Beltsville. MD. USA: 53pp.

    Journals of Beekeeping
    Journal of Apicultural Research
    Indian Bee Journal
    Korean Journal of Apiculture

    Bee Flora


    Important Bee Flora of India
    Botanical Name English / Local Name Source (Nectar= N; Pollen= P) Distribution in India
    Accacia catechu Khair N Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh
    Anacardium occdentale Cashew nut N, P West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Goa
    Borassus flabellifer Palmyrah palm N, P Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu
    Brassica species Mustards N, P Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
    Cajanus indicus Pigeon pea, arhar N, P Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Bihar, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh
    Citrus aurantifolia other species Lemon etc. N, P Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu
    Cocos nucifera Coco palm N, P Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya
    Coffea arabica Coffee plant N, P Assam, West Bengal, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala
    Coriandrum sativum coriander N, P Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
    Cuizotia abyssinica Niger N, P Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra
    Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Shisham NP Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh
    Eucalyptus species Eucalyptus N, P Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Karnataka
    Gossypium herabaceum Cotton NP Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh
    Helianthus annuus Sunflower N, P Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
    Hevia brasiliensis Rubber tree N Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Tripura
    Lathyrus sativus Khesari N, P Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal
    Nephelium litchi Litchi N, P Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Assam
    Plectranthus rugosus Sula N, P Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh
    Pongamia pinnata Karanj N, P Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala
    Schefflera species Bethu, Anagalu N, P Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra
    Syzygium cumini Jamun N, P Maharashtra, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu
    Tamarindus indica Tamarind N, P Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
    Toona ciliata Tun N, P Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh
    Trifolium alexandrinum Berseem N, P Punjab, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
    Zea mays L. Maize P Punjab, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana
    Ziziphus mauritiana Ber N, P Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka

    Apitherapy


    HONEYS CONSUMPTION PROTECT DNA DAMAGE and KEEP BAD FREE RADICALS AWAY FROM HUMAN BODY
    A new study by Habib and co-workers from United Arab Emirates has revealed that honeys from this region exerts such activities in the body that inhibit damage to the DNA. The honeys with higher phenolic compounds also exert high antioxidant activity. Such honeys also exert activities that scavenge on the free radicals and keep body free from them.

    Habib and co-workers. 2013. Bioactive components, antioxidant and dna damage inhibitory activities of honeys from arid regions.
    HONEY CONSUMPTION PROTECTS FROM DIABETES, HYPERTENSION AND OTHER RISK FACTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAT DISEASES
    Al-WailiNoori and co-workers from USA found that due to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of honeys, more scientific data support the use of honeys in patients with diabetes, hypertension (HTN), hypercholesteremia, dyslipidemia, obesity and other replica hamilton girard perregaux richeville risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) over various medications due to their undesirable side effects. More evidence are emerging on the positive aspects of honeys on blood sugar, body weight, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, nitric oxide, proinflammatory prostaglandins, and homocysteine.

    Al-WailiNoori and co-workers. 2013. Honey and cardiovascular risk factors, in normal individuals and in a patient with diabetes mellitus or dyslipidemia.
    SECRET OF ELIMINATING FACIAL ACNE WITH HONEY REVEALED
    Ms. Reddit, has revealed the secrets of her fight against the facial acne that had till now severely replica breitling girard perregaux complications affected her life. Using adhesive or simple bandages containing beans smeared with honey on her face radically changed her appearance after two weeks of treatment.
    PROPOLIS REDUCED CANCERIUS TUMORS AND INCREASED SURVIVAL IN MICE
    A study in Crotia by Lisicic and co-workers revealed that the addition of water soluble derivatives of propolis (WSDP) and ethnolic (EEP) @ 100 mg/kg daily for 3 consecutive days in anticancer drug Irinotecan increased mice survival by 231.5%. It significantly decreased percentage of tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity. Addition of propolis to IRI treatment enhanced antitumor activity of ant-cancer drug and prolongs survival in EAT-bearing mice.

    Lisicic and co-workers. 2013. Addition of propolis to irinotecan therapy prolongs survival in ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing.

    Indian Beekeeping


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    State State Agriculture University / All India Coordinated Research Project on Honeybees and Pollinators of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Khadi & Village Industries Commission, Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (Govt. of India) State Government / Others
    Haryana- Kaul Dr. O.P.Chaudhary, Professor Former Director, Central Bee Research & Training Institute, Pune and Director, Beekeeping Industry, Khadi & Village Industries Commission, Mumbai (Govt. of India)
    Hisar - Dr. S.K. Sharma Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar ?125004 Phone:01662-289289 (O) 093543 25702 (M) Email:sks5520@yahoo.com
    Jammu & Kashmir Dr. D.P. Abrol Department of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Chatha-180 009 Jammu Phone:0191-2262100 (O) 09419185305 (M) Email:dharamabrol@rediffmail.com State Beekeeping Extension Centre (SBEC), KVIC, C/o Gandhi Seva Sadan, Hiranagar, (Kathua)
    Himachal Pradesh Dr. B. S. Rana Department of Entomology & Apiculture, Dr. YSP University of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173 230 Phone:01792-252240 (O) 094181 35404 (M) Email:maunpalan@rediffmail.com Dr. H.K.Sharma Phone:09418631815 (M) Email:harishkulu@yahoo.co.in SBEC, KVIC, Near Play Ground, Kangra ?176 001
    Punjab Dr. Jaspal Singh Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004 Phone :0161-2401960-79 Ext. 320 (O) 080546 04967 (M) Email:pau.apiculture@gamil.com Dr. P.K. Chhuneja, 9888885556 (M) SBEC, KVIC, Bassipatna, Dist. Fategarh Sahib, PUNJAB
    Uttar Pradesh Dr. Umesh Chandra Department of Entomology, Narender Dev University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad ?224 229 05270-262075 (O) 09451158771 (M) SBEC, KVIC, Ch. Charan Singh Multi Disciplinary Training Centre, P.O. Punjokhara, Dist. Muzaffarnagar ?247 445
    Uttara Khand Dr. Pramod Mall Department of Entomology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263145 05944-233078 (O) 094563 45516 (M) drmall722000@yahoo.co.uk Dr. M. S. Khan, 09412996902 (M) sarfrazms65@yahoo.co.in SBEC, KVIC, Multi Disciplinary Training Centre, P.B. No. 27, Haldwani, Dist. Nainital -263 139
    Rajasthan Dr. K. N. Ojha Agricultural Research Station, Post Box No. 7, GPO Nayapura, Kota ?324 001 0744-2844369 (O) 094601 72910 (M) ojha_kn@yahoo.co.in SBEC, KVIC
    Madhya Pradesh SBEC, KVIC, C/o Mahatma Gandhi Seva Ashram, Joura, Dist. Morena ?476 2212
    Gujarat SBEC, KVIC, Central Bio Laboratory, Dept. of Entomology, Navsari Agriculture University, Navsari ?396 450
    Bihar Dr. Hari Chand, 09931911998 (M) Dr.S.P.N. Singh Dept. of Entomology, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur- 848 125 06274-240255 (O) SBEC, KVIC, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Multi Disciplinary Training Centre, Post. B.V. College, Shaikhpura, Patna ?800 014
    W. Bengal SBEC, KVIC, Multi Disciplinary Training Centre, Abhay Ashram Campus, Post. Birati, Kolkatta- 700 051
    Jharkhand Dr. Binay Kumar Dept. of Entomology, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke-834006, Ranchi 0651-2450619 (O) 09431593943 (M) binayento@yahoo.co.in SBEC, KVIC, c/o Chotanagpur Khadi Gramodyog Sansthan,Sarvodaya Ashram, Tiril, Dist. Ranchi ?834004
    Chhatisgarh Dr. Vikas Singh Dept. of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur ?492 006 0771-2444161 (O) SBEC, KVIC, 817/6-7, Anil Bhavan, Bilaspur Road, Fafadiha, Raipur ?492 001
    Orissa Dr. C R Satapathy Department of Entomology, Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar - 751 003 0674-2392970 Ext.143 (O) 09437013677 (M) crsatapathy@rediffmail.com SBEC, KVIC, Multi Disciplinary Training Centre, “Udyogpuri? P.O. Khandagiri, Bhubaneshwar ?751 030
    Maharashtra Central Bee Research and Training Institute (CBRTI), KVIC, 1153, Ganeshkhind Road, Shivaji Nagar, Pune - 411 016. Phone No.+91 20 - 25655351, 25675865 Fax: (020) 25655351 E-mail: cbrti@pn.3.vsnl.net.in SBEC, KVIC, Near Municipal Hospital, Sabnis Plot, Amaravati
    Andhra Pradesh Dr. K. Mohan Rao Agricultural Research Station, Vijayarai ?534 475, West Godavari District 08812 ?225689 (O) 09493304643 (M) kmohanrao64@yahoo.com SBEC, KVIC, Pedavegi, At. P.O. VIJAYARAI, Dist. West Godawari- 534475
    Karnataka Dr. N.S. Bhat Department of Apiculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore ?560 065 080- 23636346 (O) 094804 23686 (M) nshankarbhat@gmail.com SBEC, KVIC, Multi Disciplinary Training Centre, Doorvani Nagar, Vijinapura, Bangalore
    Tamil Nadu SBEC, KVIC, Kuzhithurai, Dist. Kanyakumari
    Kerala Dr. S. Devanesan Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, Vellayani,Thiruvananthapuram ?695 522 0471-2384422 (O) 098470 63300 (M) denvnesanstephen@gmail.com SBEC, KVIC, Multi Disciplinary Training Centre, Nadathara, Trichur ?680 754
    Assam Dr. A. Rahman Department of Entomology, Assam Agril. University, Jorhat ?785 013 0376-2340001 (O) 094354 89475 (M) rahmanataur86@yahoo.com SBEC, KVIC,
    Nagaland Dr. H. K. Singh Dept. of Entomology, SASRD, Nagaland University, Medziphema - 797 106 03862-247587 (O) 09436004729 (M) hemant.singh96@yahoo.com SBEC, KVIC,
    Meghalaya SBEC, KVIC, Ward No. 8, Oakland, Shillong ?793 001, MEGHALAYA
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    Pollination

    Economic benefits of honeybees: It is impossible to measure the ecological and economical value of bee pollination to humanity. In USA, the value of the increased replica breitling girard perregaux complications yield and quality achieved through pollination by honey bees alone - was $14.6 billion in 2000 this excluded the spillover benefits or free pollination to commercial crops and natural ecosystem.

    In 1967 the value of bee pollinated crops in USA was $ 7 billion, whereas honey and beeswax produced were valued at $45 million - a benefit of about 150 times the value of honey and beeswax.


    Beneficial effects of bee pollination on seed yield of some important Indian crops

    Sr. No. Crops Percent increase in yield by bee pollination over self pollination
    1. Musard, Brassica campestris 131.63
    2. B. campestris var. toria 77.55
    3. Safflower 46.72 - 511.52
    4. Niger 173.3 - 1121.3
    5. Sunflower 501.01 - 3688.52
    6. Linseed 232.46
    7. Sesamum (Gingelly) 24.41
    8. Onion 150.6 - 1001.02
    9. Carrot 500.97
    10. Radish 705.79
    11. Brinjal 34.9 - 150.6
    12. Coriander 186.89
    13. Grape fruit, Citrus paradasi 35.5 - 51.7
    14. Orange, C. reticulata 471.4 - 900.0
    15. Musambi, C. sinensis 36.2 - 750.0
    16. Strawberry 38.1
    17. Cherries, Prunus avium 56.10
    18. Plum, P. domestica 535.71
    19. Peach, P. persica 81.11
    20. Guava, Psidium guajava 12.04 - 213.9
    21. Pear, Pyrus communis 1953.57
    22. Apple, Malus domestica 930.0 - 2321.05
    23. Coffee, Coffea arabica 83.0
    24. Cotton 37.46 - 62.60
    25. Berseem 3496.86